Whilst library staff endeavour to give guidance in these matters, it is ultimately the responsibility of the individual student or staff member of the University to abide by the legislation and CLA agreement. We strongly advise that you consult the CLA HE licence and user guidance before undertaking any copying.
The Albert Sloman Library collections in print and electronic format (e.g. e-journals, e-books and online databases) are subject to copyright law and publishers' licensing terms which cover photocopying, scanning, printing, downloading and re-use of content. Please be aware that it is the individual's responsibility to ensure their actions do not breach copyright or license agreements. Any infringement can result in serious legal consequences.
Notices are placed beside all photocopying machines and scanners in the Library drawing attention of users to copyright regulations. Further notices and guidance are accessible from the e-resources pages on the Library website.
Copyright gives legal protection to the creators of original material against unauthorised exploitation of their work and covers the reproduction, publication, dissemination or performance of anything that is written, printed, recorded, or produced in any form, including printed and electronic material, illustrations, films, recorded music, computer software, and all intellectual property. Copyright in the UK is governed by the Copyright, Designs and Patents Act 1998, as amended.
Copyright usually provides protection for a specific period of time. When that time elapses, the material is considered to be in the public domain. Copyright normally exists until 70 years have elapsed from the year of the creator's death, but even if the literary content of a work is out of copyright, copyright exists in the typographical arrangement of a published work for 25 years after the end of the year in which the edition was first published.
The Act specifies who is the first owner at the time of creation or production but copyright can be assigned by the owner to another, e.g., the author of an article in a journal can assign copyright to the publisher of that journal.
It is not permitted to copy any copyright material unless the material falls into one of the categories below:
Please note the above is an interpretation of the law and does not constitute formal legal advice.
By an individual or someone on their behalf.
The law permits the copying of copyright material for private study and research within certain limits and this permission is sometimes referred to as 'fair dealing' or a legally permitted copy. Currently it is uncertain whether fair dealing extends to scanning, digitising or downloading but some guidance is provided below.
Fair dealing is not a legal right and is strictly limited as follows:
The accepted guidelines for what constitutes fair dealing are:
It is probably reasonable for you to scan a copy of copyright material for your own personal use provided that it is within the guidelines for fair dealing outlined above.
In general most electronic resources give permission to:
It is not permitted to:
*Multiple copying of the same item is not permitted under copyright law or 'fair dealing' but is permitted in some circumstances within the terms of the University's HE license with the Copyright Licensing Agency (see below).
With the Copyright and Rights in Performances (Disability) Regulations 2014/1384 the Government have made it easier for disabled people to access materials that are protected by copyright. The change in the law has made the rules on what can be copied into an accessible format much broader so that a whole range of content, including films and broadcasts, can be reproduced in an accessible format for disabled people. It has also allows anyone who has an impairment that prevents them accessing copyright works will be able to benefit from the exception, not just visually-impaired people. However, it will only be legal to reproduce material if suitable accessible copies are not commercially available.
Crown copyright exists in works 'made by Her Majesty or by an officer or servant of the Crown in the course of his duties' which includes material created by civil servants, ministers and government departments and agencies and includes material such as legislation, government codes of practice, Ordnance Survey mapping, government reports, official press releases, government forms and many public records.
Most material should feature a Crown copyright statement © Crown copyright.
Crown copyright work which has been published will have copyright protection for 50 years from the end of the year in which the work was published.
Unpublished works have a period of protection of 125 years from the end of the year in which the work was made or until 31 December 2039 (which is 50 years from the year in which the Copyright, Designs and Patents Act 1988 came into force).
Copyright in a work which has been assigned to the Crown lasts 70 years after the death of the person who created it.
The 'use and reuse' of Crown copyright material is managed by the Open Government Licence see: http://www.nationalarchives.gov.uk/doc/open-government-licence/version/3/